usability, design, interaction design, information, web usability, user interface design, usability engineering,user testing, usability inspection, heuristic evaluation, webdesign, UI, GUI, HCI, user-centered design,human-computer interaction, mensch computer interaktion,universität konstanz, usability test, benutzerfreundlichkeit, mensch-maschine-interaktion, mensch-computer-interaktion, human-computer-interaction, usable, website usability, ergonomie, ergonomisch, psychologie, gestalt principles, scenario, information visualization,informationsvisualisierung, User Interface Evaluation, Usability testing, Human Factors, Erogonomic, Ergonomics, User Interfaces, User Interface, Interfaces, informations visualisierung, visual information seeking system, visual search interface, Mensch & Computer 2012Harald Reiterer

Research

The Next Generation Workplace in Control Room

The Next Generation Workplace in Control Room (Flyer)

Status

Members

Tobias Schwarz, Simon Butscher, Jens Mueller, Mathias Heilig, Harald Reiterer

Address

http://hci.uni-konstanz.de/HolisticWorkspace

Flyer

http://hci.uni-konstanz.de/http://hci.uni-konstanz.de/HolisticWorkspace/holisticworkspace.pdf (Download as PDF)

Recent blogposts

Multiple articles of members of our research group featured in i-com

The german journal i-com – Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien features multiple articles of current and former members of our research group in its current issue. The articles are written in german and can be found here: Editorial – Themenschwerpunkt Interaktive Oberflächen in Forschung und PraxisDaniel Klinkhammer, Harald Reiterer and Raimund Dachselt   Die [...] [read more]
Posted December 16th, 2013 | Posted in News
Zum Blog

Article about Blended Interaction featured in at – Automatisierungstechnik

The german journal at – Automatisierungstechnik features an article of members of our research group about Blended Interaction in its current issue. at – Automatisierungstechnik publishes articles covering the entire range of automation technology. The journal maintains close ties to research institutes and universities engaged in automation research. It serves the industry as an important [...] [read more]
Posted December 2nd, 2013 | Posted in News
Zum Blog

A full paper from project “Holistic Workspace” accepted at Useware 2012

A full paper from project “Holistic Workspace” were accepted for presentation at this year’s Useware 2012 conference. The conference on Human-Computer Interaction will take place in Kaiserslautern from December 4th to December 5th. We will present paper on “Neue Interaktionsformen für die Leitwarte der Zukunft”. We are looking forward to an interesting conference! [read more]
Posted October 29th, 2012 | Posted in Event
Zum Blog

Description



The project “Holistic Workspace” is concerned with the following questions: "How will the workspace of control rooms in the future look like? How can new technologies and supporting systems assist operators with their daily work?"



RESEARCH GOALS

Within the project’s scope, current workplaces of different domains are viewed and analyzed holistically. Based on this analysis, considering new technologies and approaches – as e.g. the principles of “reality-based interaction” – a holistic concept of today’s workplace is going to be developed. The next generation of control room design also considers previous generations in case they have proven themselves. So, a new and innovative concept evolves, perfectly uniting the benefits of former developments.



Fig. 1: Learning from former developments


At this juncture, a system that considers user’s experiences and skills in order to support him to accomplish his tasks and to integrate him into his working environment sees the light of the day

MOTIVATION

Today, process management is marked by the use of closely geared human-machine systems, highly relevant to security [1].Due to a steadily increasing automation level, the people controlling those systems, the so-called operators, have to deal with a high degree of complexity. This claims superior requirements to the human and can impose excessive demands on users caused by information flood. Thus, making the complexity controllable is a big challenge of today’s human-machine-interface design.
In order to adequately support the operators it is highly necessary to adapt systems to human skills and not vice versa. Due to the steadily increasing competitive pressure, this “usability of systems” has also become a crucial factor to advance customer loyalty. In collaboration with a well-known industry partner, the objective of this project is to optimize operators’ workspaces in control rooms by developing a forward-looking and holistic workstation.
The topic “control room” has large cross-sector importance for the cooperation partner, whether it concerns tunnel surveillance, power stations, energy distribution facilities, production of electricity and many more. Nevertheless, different and partial parallel developments can be encountered in all those sectors.
Based on their background, developers of operational systems generally have a very technical and function-oriented view on the system design. Additionally, today’s developments are characterized by a focus on the particular product - the composition of all devices at the workplace is nearly never recognized as an important factor of control room design. Thus, machine-oriented concepts arise in which users and work organization have to fit to technical guidelines and on-site combination of single devices (“human pull” instead of “technology push”). According to this, users do not operate at homogenous workplaces but have to handle a conglomeration of many different individual units.


RESEARCH APPROACH

A concentrated, holistic and broad view on the issue “control room” as claimed by this project can make an important contribution to the exchange of knowledge and the use of synergies between sectors of industry. It can additionally provide a solution which merges different modules and devices into one, consistent interface without losing track of the human being. Thus, psychological constructs like perception, planning and regulating courses of action as well as understanding human errors and their contribution to accidents are of major importance for the project progression.


PROJECT SCHEDULE

In order to get a better notion of users’ needs and expectations, the currently deployed systems that should aid the operator to fulfill his tasks are analyzed. Thus, work’s starting point is a comprehensive, cross-sectional contextual inquiry [2] on-site, i.e. at tunnel surveillance, energy distribution or operative control rooms (fire department, police). The results of the contextual inquiry are a detailed description of actual using conditions at real workplaces (typical points of departure, typical activities and working steps, context-specific difficulties, exceptions, visions) in terms of context scenarios. By the use of adequate abstractions, generic context scenarios can be deduced from the specific ones.
Based on this and considering new technologies and approaches, a generic, modular concept for future “holistic workspace” is developed. General principle of concept development is a system that supports the user to exercise his tasks and to integrate him into his work environment, considering his experience and abilities at the best.
In order to evaluate the concept, a prototype for a specific use-case is developed. Afterwards, suitability for daily use is tested with real users. A critical reflection of the elaborated concept and an outlook finalizes the scientific work.
In the following, more information on completed and current work steps is provided. Additionally, process management in general and research findings on human errors are presented.



Fig. 2: Project Schedule

WORK STEPS

Task Analyses (Contextual inquiry)

In order to ensure a user-centered optimization of control rooms, a cross-sectional analysis (e.g. power stations, air traffic control, open cast mining) was realized in order to survey the needs and expectations of current control room staff. For this purpose, on-site contextual inquiries [2] were conducted.
This kind of socio-scientific research method permits the direct study of operators in their natural working environment, an indisputable contribution to a high outcome quality. The real terms of operators’ use as well as the functional requirements to a computer-based system are gathered at great length by detecting typical activities (work steps) and context-specific difficulties.
For this purpose, operators were observed while doing their daily work. In contrast to the systematic observation often used in the empirical socio-scientific research, behavioral monitoring in contextual inquiry not only allows, but even demands the participation of the researcher due to deeper qualitative insights resulting from the interaction between observer and the person being observed. At this juncture, objective criteria (e.g. particular steps at the execution of an action) as well as subjective and psychological criteria (e.g. validation of a certain subsystem, cognitive processes before/while/after the execution of an action) play a decisive role. Therefore, in the scope of a participant observation, subjects were also asked to think aloud, i.e. to constantly reflect on their internally subsiding cognitive processes.
In addition to qualitative data, contextual inquiries also involve surveying quantitative information by conducting structured expert interviews. With this approach operators, as experts for their occupational area, were asked about their daily work. They got the chance to talk about the benefits and disadvantages of their workplace and operations and thus, they obtained the possibility to directly influence prospective developments in the area of control rooms. With the matter in hand, additional questions on new interaction technologies were added to the interviews in order to investigate the potential use of more intuitive control panels in the future.


Current work: Concept Development

Uniting the advantages of former developments in the sector of control room design with new interaction technologies, a multiple touch system providing old school interaction elements like control dials may be an innovative, practicable and, due to the results of the contextual inquiry, broadly accepted approach towards future. Additionally, reduction of monitors and devices at the workplace are a second scope. Fig. 3 demonstrates a first sketch of these basic concept ideas.

Fig. 3: Concept sketch

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT RELATED TOPICS

Process Management

In recent years, the view on the operators’ routine has changed dramatically. While former definitions describe the operators’ main task as “surveillance control” [3] , newer definitions regard operators’ duties as “active localization of malfunctions and mistakes” [1]. That is, active recognition of exceptions and anomalies within the system has turned to rather passive hypothesis testing on the localization of malfunctions. Although the operators continue to contribute to the process actively, the role of operators has changed from users to observers due to the increasing degree of system automation within the last years. Today, the operators’ primary task is to assure a well-regulated process cycle in the application system to observe and to control. At this juncture, “normal mode” and “faulty operation” have to be substantially distinct.
While “normal mode” determines most of the time within supervisory control, asking a high and constant level of overview, concentration and sense of responsibility, “faulty operations”, although happening very rare, make great demands on the operators’ creativity, flexibility and troubleshooting ability. Jens Rasmussen [4] has developed a model to visualize the cascade of activities necessary to handle such anomalies (see fig. 5). It visualizes the cognitive processes necessary to generate problem solutions in an extreme situation. Constructed like a ladder, it shows the rising process of problem analyzing, the moment of decision making as the top the thinking process and the descending process of action planning. Cognitive shortcuts can support the decisive process, abridging the way from analyzing to planning. At this juncture, cognitive errors like heuristics can play an important role and lead to fallible decisions.




Fig. 4: Decision ladder (Rasmussen, 1984, simplified)

Particularly with regard to faulty operations, requirements towards technical systems increase as they have to be able to take control of situations, in which extensive, well-defined, quick and systematic analysis and reaction is needed. Although today’s highly automated systems provide those possibilities, they come along with a certain disability of the operators, causing a diffusion of responsibility with possibly fatal outcomes. Thus, a holistic view on the operators’ work must consider technical possibilities as well as their constraints of responsibility without assisting information overload or human errors.


Human Errors

Regarding serious incidents with fatal consequences (e.g. Chernobyl), often operators and their malpractice are blamed to be the cause of the disaster. Psychological research on planning and regulating courses of action argues with the agents of human mistakes at work. Please find a complete overview over the topic here.


REFERENCES
[1]Mumaw, R. J., Roth, E. M., Vicente, K. J., Burns, C. M., (2000): There is More to Monitoring a Nuclear Power Plant than Meets the Eye. Human Factors; The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp. 36-55.
[2]Beyer, J. and Holtzbaltt, K., (1997): Contextual Design: Defining Customer-Centered Systems, Morgan Kaufmann
[3] Sheridan, T.B., (1987): Supervisory Control. In: G. Salvendy (Ed.): Handbook of Human Factors, John Wiley and Sons, pp. 1243-1268.
[4]Rasmussen, J., (1984): Strategies for State Identification and Diagnosis in Supervisory Control Tasks, and Design of Computer-Based Support Systems. Advances in Man- Machine Systems Research, Vol.1, Denmark, pp. 139-193.

Publications
& Theses

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2015

Holistic Workspace – Gestaltung von realitätsbasierten Interaktions- und Visualisierungskonzepten im Kontext von Leitwarten  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias

PhD Thesis, Konstanz, Germany, Jul 2015

@phdthesis{Schwarz20158644869,
author = {Tobias Schwarz},
title = {Holistic Workspace – Gestaltung von realitätsbasierten Interaktions- und Visualisierungskonzepten im Kontext von Leitwarten},
booktitle = {PhD Thesis},
year = {2015},
type = {phdthesis},
month = {Jul},
school = {University of Konstanz}

}
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2014

Back to Tangibility: A Post-WIMP Perspective on Control Room Design  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Mueller, Jens; Schwarz, Tobias; Butscher, Simon; Reiterer, Harald

AVI'14: Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, ACM Press, May 2014

@inproceedings{Mueller20148628160,
author = {Jens Mueller and Tobias Schwarz and Simon Butscher and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Back to Tangibility: A Post-WIMP Perspective on Control Room Design},
booktitle = {AVI'14: Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces},
year = {2014},
month = {May},
publisher = {ACM Press}

}
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2013

Multi-user Twitter Analysis for Crisis Room Environments  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Butscher, Simon; Mueller, Jens; Weiler, Andreas; Rädle, Roman; Reiterer, Harald; Scholl, Marc

in: Rester, Markus; Judmaier, Peter; De Groeve, Tom; Annunziato, Alessandro, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, Collaborative Human-Computer-Interaction with Big Wall Displays BigWallHCI 2013, 3rd JRC ECML Crisis Management Technology Workshop, p. 28-34, Dec 2013

@article{Butscher20138619941,
author = {Simon Butscher and Jens Mueller and Andreas Weiler and Roman Rädle and Harald Reiterer and Marc Scholl},
title = {Multi-user Twitter Analysis for Crisis Room Environments},
year = {2013},
journal = {Collaborative Human-Computer-Interaction with Big Wall Displays BigWallHCI 2013, 3rd JRC ECML Crisis Management Technology Workshop},
pages = {28-34},
month = {Dec},
publisher = {Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union}

}
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Blended Interaction - Neue Wege zur Vermischung realer und digitaler Interaktionskonzepte im Kontext von Leitwarten  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Butscher, Simon; Mueller, Jens; Reiterer, Harald

Sonderheft „Multimodale Interaktion“ der at Automatisierungstechnik, Nov 2013

@article{Schwarz20138619893,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Simon Butscher and Jens Mueller and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Blended Interaction - Neue Wege zur Vermischung realer und digitaler Interaktionskonzepte im Kontext von Leitwarten},
year = {2013},
journal = {Sonderheft „Multimodale Interaktion“ der at Automatisierungstechnik},
month = {Nov}

}
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Die Wiederentdeckung analoger Interaktionsqualitäten in der digitalen Leitwarte  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Mueller, Jens; Butscher, Simon; Reiterer, Harald

i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien, Interaktive Oberflächen in Forschung und Praxis, Band 12, Heft 3, p. 25-33, Nov 2013

@article{Schwarz20138619923,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Jens Mueller and Simon Butscher and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Die Wiederentdeckung analoger Interaktionsqualitäten in der digitalen Leitwarte},
year = {2013},
journal = {i-com - Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien, Interaktive Oberflächen in Forschung und Praxis, Band 12, Heft 3},
pages = {25-33},
month = {Nov}

}
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Blended Interaction as an Approach for Holistic Control Room Design  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Butscher, Simon; Mueller, Jens; Schwarz, Tobias; Reiterer, Harald

In Proceedings of the Workshop on Blended Interaction: Envisioning Future Collaborative Interactive Spaces (In conjunction with CHI 2013 Conference), ACM Press, Apr 2013

@inproceedings{Butscher20138611481,
author = {Simon Butscher and Jens Mueller and Tobias Schwarz and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Blended Interaction as an Approach for Holistic Control Room Design},
booktitle = {In Proceedings of the Workshop on Blended Interaction: Envisioning Future Collaborative Interactive Spaces (In conjunction with CHI 2013 Conference)},
year = {2013},
type = {inproceedings},
month = {Apr},
publisher = {ACM Press}

}
Download PDF

2012

Reality-based Interaction Styles for the Manipulation of Process Variables in Control Room Environments  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Mueller, Jens

Master Thesis, Konstanz, Germany, Dec 2012

@mastersthesis{Mueller20128611406,
author = {Jens Mueller},
title = {Realitätsbasierte Formen der Interaktion für die Manipulation von Prozessvariablen im Leitwartenkontext},
booktitle = {Master Thesis},
year = {2012},
type = {mastersthesis},
month = {Dec},
school = {University of Konstanz}

}
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Holistic Workspace – Neue Interaktionsformen für die Leitwarte der Zukunft  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Mueller, Jens; Butscher, Simon; Reiterer, Harald

in Proceedings of Useware 2012, VDI, Dec 2012

@inproceedings{Schwarz20128609542,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Jens Mueller and Simon Butscher and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Holistic Workspace – Neue Interaktionsformen für die Leitwarte der Zukunft},
booktitle = {in Proceedings of Useware 2012},
year = {2012},
month = {Dec},
publisher = {VDI}

}
Download PDF

Exploring former interaction qualities for tomorrow’s control room design  [Bibtex]

Mueller, Jens; Schwarz, Tobias; Butscher, Simon; Reiterer, Harald

in Proceedings of Mensch und Computer 2012 (Short Paper), Konstanz, Sep 2012

@inproceedings{Mueller20128609543,
author = {Jens Mueller and Tobias Schwarz and Simon Butscher and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Exploring former interaction qualities for tomorrow’s control room design},
booktitle = {in Proceedings of Mensch und Computer 2012 (Short Paper)},
year = {2012},
type = {inproceedings},
month = {Sep},
publisher = {Konstanz}

}
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Ein Multi-Focus-View Konzept im Kontext der Verkehrsleitzentrale  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Butscher, Simon; Mueller, Jens; Reiterer, Harald

in Proceedings of Mensch und Computer 2012, Oldenbourg, Sep 2012

@inproceedings{Schwarz20128609535,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Simon Butscher and Jens Mueller and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Ein Multi-Focus-View Konzept im Kontext der Verkehrsleitzentrale},
booktitle = {in Proceedings of Mensch und Computer 2012},
year = {2012},
type = {inproceedings},
month = {Sep},
publisher = {Oldenbourg}

}
Download PDF Video

Content-aware navigation for large displays in context of traffic control rooms  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Butscher, Simon; Mueller, Jens; Reiterer, Harald

in Proceedings of AVI 2012: Advanced Visual Interfaces International Working Conference, ACM Press, May 2012

@inproceedings{Schwarz20128609530,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Simon Butscher and Jens Mueller and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Content-aware navigation for large displays in context of traffic control rooms},
booktitle = {in Proceedings of AVI 2012: Advanced Visual Interfaces International Working Conference},
year = {2012},
month = {May},
publisher = {ACM Press}

}
Download PDF

Blended Interaction – Toward a Framework for the Design of Interactive Spaces  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Jetter, Hans-Christian; Geyer, Florian; Schwarz, Tobias; Reiterer, Harald

Workshop Designing Collaborative Interactive Spaces (DCIS 2012) at AVI 2012, HCI Group, Univ. of Konstanz, May 2012

@inproceedings{Jetter20128609529,
author = {Hans-Christian Jetter and Florian Geyer and Tobias Schwarz and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Blended Interaction – Toward a Framework for the Design of Interactive Spaces},
booktitle = {Workshop Designing Collaborative Interactive Spaces (DCIS 2012) at AVI 2012},
year = {2012},
month = {May},
publisher = {HCI Group, Univ. of Konstanz}

}
Download PDF

Perspective+Detail - a visualization technique for vertically curved displays   [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Hennecke, Fabian; Lauber, Felix; Reiterer, Harald

in Proceedings of AVI 2012: Advanced Visual Interfaces International Working Conference, ACM Press, May 2012

@inproceedings{Schwarz20128609531,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Fabian Hennecke and Felix Lauber and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Perspective+Detail - a visualization technique for vertically curved displays },
booktitle = {in Proceedings of AVI 2012: Advanced Visual Interfaces International Working Conference},
year = {2012},
month = {May},
publisher = {ACM Press}

}
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Holistic Workspace - Wie neue Technologien die Operatoren unterstützen  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Oortmann, Holger; Reiterer, Harald

in automatisieren! by atp, Oldenbourg, Apr 2012

@inproceedings{Schwarz20128609492,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Holger Oortmann and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Holistic Workspace - Wie neue Technologien die Operatoren unterstützen},
booktitle = {in automatisieren! by atp},
year = {2012},
month = {Apr},
publisher = {Oldenbourg}

}
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Development of a visualization and interaction concept for monitoring and diagnosis in the context of control rooms: An examination of different multi-focus views using the exemple of a traffic control center  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Butscher, Simon

Master Thesis, University of Konstanz, Apr 2012

@mastersthesis{Butscher20128609536,
author = {Simon Butscher},
title = {Entwicklung eines Visualisierungs- und Interaktionskonzepts für die Überwachung und Diagnose im Leitwartenkontext: Eine Untersuchung unterschiedlicher Multifoci-Ansichten am Beispiel einer Verkehrsleitzentrale},
booktitle = {Master Thesis},
year = {2012},
type = {mastersthesis},
month = {Apr},
school = {University of Konstanz}

}
Download PDF

2011

Reality-Based Interaction for Control Rooms  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Mueller, Jens; Butscher, Simon; Reiterer, Harald

In HFSE 2011: Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter (Poster Session), Shaker, Oct 2011

@inproceedings{Schwarz20118609466,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Jens Mueller and Simon Butscher and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Reality-Based Interaction for Control Rooms},
booktitle = {In HFSE 2011: Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter (Poster Session)},
year = {2011},
month = {Oct},
publisher = {Shaker}

}
Download PDF

Monitoring of processes and manipulation of process variables in the context of a multi-user setting in a traffic control room  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Butscher, Simon; Schwarz, Tobias; Mueller, Jens; Reiterer, Harald

In HFSE 2011: Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter (Poster Session), Shaker, Oct 2011

@inproceedings{Butscher20118609467,
author = {Simon Butscher and Tobias Schwarz and Jens Mueller and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Monitoring of processes and manipulation of process variables in the context of a multi-user setting in a traffic control room},
booktitle = {In HFSE 2011: Proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter (Poster Session)},
year = {2011},
month = {Oct},
publisher = {Shaker}

}
Download PDF

Inhaltssensitive Navigation in der Verkehrsleitzentrale  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Butscher, Simon; Mueller, Jens; Reiterer, Harald

Proceedings of Mensch und Computer 2011, Oldenbourg, Sep 2011

@inproceedings{Schwarz20118609454,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Simon Butscher and Jens Mueller and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Inhaltssensitive Navigation in der Verkehrsleitzentrale},
booktitle = {Proceedings of Mensch und Computer 2011},
year = {2011},
type = {inproceedings},
month = {Sep},
publisher = {Oldenbourg}

}
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Die Gestaltung der Arbeitsumgebung von Operatoren (k-)ein Platz für Innovationen?  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Heilig, Mathias; Butscher, Simon; Mueller, Jens; Reiterer, Harald

in Proceedings of Automation 2011, VDI Verlag, Jun 2011

@inproceedings{Schwarz20118609446,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Mathias Heilig and Simon Butscher and Jens Mueller and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Die Gestaltung der Arbeitsumgebung von Operatoren (k-)ein Platz für Innovationen?},
booktitle = {in Proceedings of Automation 2011},
year = {2011},
month = {Jun},
publisher = {VDI Verlag}

}
Download PDF

Holistic Workspace - den Leitstand der Zukunft gestalten!  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Oortmann, Holger; Reiterer, Harald

in Automatisierungstechnische Praxis - atp Edition, Oldenbourg, Jun 2011

@inproceedings{Schwarz20118609443,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Holger Oortmann and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Holistic Workspace - den Leitstand der Zukunft gestalten!},
booktitle = {in Automatisierungstechnische Praxis - atp Edition},
year = {2011},
month = {Jun},
publisher = {Oldenbourg}

}
Download PDF

2010

Die Leitwarte von heute verstehen - die Leitwarte von morgen gestalten!  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Kehr, Flavius; Oortmann, Holger; Reiterer, Harald

Proceedings of Mensch und Computer 2010 - Interaktive Kulturen, in: J. Ziegler & A. Schmidt, Oldenbourg, München, p. 93-102, Sep 2010

@inproceedings{Schwarz20108609169,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Flavius Kehr and Holger Oortmann and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Die Leitwarte von heute verstehen - die Leitwarte von morgen gestalten!},
booktitle = {Proceedings of Mensch und Computer 2010 - Interaktive Kulturen},
year = {2010},
type = {inproceedings},
pages = {93-102},
month = {Sep},
publisher = {Oldenbourg}

}
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Holistic Workspace: Future Control Room Design  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Kehr, Flavius; Hermes, Klaus; Reiterer, Harald

Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction (IHCI 2010), IADIS Press, Freiburg, p. 305-308, Jul 2010

@inproceedings{Schwarz20108609165,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Flavius Kehr and Klaus Hermes and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Holistic Workspace: Future Control Room Design},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction (IHCI 2010)},
year = {2010},
pages = {305-308},
month = {Jul},
publisher = {IADIS Press}

}
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Holistic Workspace – The next generation workplace in control room  [main author webpage]  [Bibtex]

Schwarz, Tobias; Oortmann, Holger; Reiterer, Harald

Proceedings of Automation 2010, VDI- Berichte 2092, VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, Jun 2010

@inproceedings{Schwarz20108609155,
author = {Tobias Schwarz and Holger Oortmann and Harald Reiterer},
title = {Holistic Workspace – The next generation workplace in control room},
booktitle = {Proceedings of Automation 2010, VDI- Berichte 2092},
year = {2010},
type = {inproceedings},
month = {Jun},
publisher = {VDI Verlag}

}
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